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Biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and recurrence monitoring of non-small cell lung cancer

Authors Tang Y, Qiao G, Xu E, Xuan Y, Liao M, Yin G

Received 19 May 2017

Accepted for publication 18 August 2017

Published 12 September 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 4527—4534


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr XuYu Yang

Yong Tang,1,2,* Guibin Qiao,1,2,* Enwu Xu,2 Yiwen Xuan,2 Ming Liao,2 Guilin Yin1

1Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Despite advances in the management of non-small cell lung cancer, it remains to be the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide primarily because of diagnosis at a late stage with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17%. A reduction in mortality was achieved by low-dose computed tomography screening of high-risk patients. However, the benefit was later challenged by the high false positive rate, resulting in unnecessary follow-ups, thus entailing a burden on both the health care system and the individual. The diagnostic dilemma imposed by imaging modalities has created a need for the development of biomarkers capable of differentiating benign nodules from malignant ones. In the past decade, with the advancements in high-throughput profiling technologies, a huge amount of work has been done to derive biomarkers to supplement clinical diagnosis. However, only a few of them have efficient sensitivity and specificity to be utilized in clinical settings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of sensitive and specific means to detect and diagnose lung cancers at an early stage, when curative interventions are still possible. Due to the invasiveness of tissue biopsies and inability to capture tumor heterogeneity, nowadays enormous efforts have been invested in the development of technologies and biomarkers that enable sensitive and cost-effective testing using substrates that can be obtained in a noninvasive manner. This review, primarily focusing on liquid biopsy, summarizes all documented potential biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring recurrence treatment response.

Keywords: liquid biopsy, circulating-tumor DNA, circulating tumor cells, non-small cell lung cancer, exosomes, biomarkers

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