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Biochemical Markers of Colorectal Cancer – Present and Future

Authors Jelski W, Mroczko B

Received 10 March 2020

Accepted for publication 22 May 2020

Published 22 June 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 4789—4797


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Eileen O'Reilly

Wojciech Jelski,1 Barbara Mroczko1,2

1Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; 2Department of Neurodegeneration Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland

Correspondence: Wojciech Jelski
Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 15 A, Bialystok 15– 269, Poland
Tel +48 85 746 8587
Fax +48 85 746 8585

Abstract: According to a report by the National Cancer Institute, colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. CRC is often recognized too late for successful therapy. Tumor markers have been sought for a number of years to detect the transformation of malignant cells at the earliest possible stage. They are usually proteins associated with a malignancy and might be clinically useful in patients with cancer. Several classical markers have been used to recognize colorectal cancer, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA 19.9), tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) and tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72). None of these tests, however, have excellent diagnostic accuracy. Recent studies have been conducted on the use of hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) and various enzymes in the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer. These include macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3, interleukin-6 and enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase and lysosomal exoglycosidases). Significantly, most cancer deaths are not caused by the primary tumor itself but by its spread. Analysis of circulating cancer cells (CTCs), ie, factors responsible for metastasis, may be a source of information useful in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Currently available markers have significant limitations.

Keywords: tumor markers, colorectal cancer

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