Bimanual simultaneous movements and hemispheric dominance: Timing of events reveals hard-wired circuitry for action, speech, and imagination
Formerly of Department of Neurology, Case Western Reserve and Cincinnati Universities, Ohio, USA
Abstract: The evidence that speech is the marker of hemisphere of action is overwhelming. Thus, contrary to the commonly accepted belief, the evidence indicates that both sides of the body are under the same command (major hemisphere) and that the nondominant side of the body is a callosum-width farther from the major hemisphere. Substantial controversy exists, however, as to the best method for determining the laterality of motor control in an individual case. According to the new understanding, ie, the one-way callosal traffic circuitry underpinning laterality of motor control, the larger excursions of effectors located opposite (contralateral to) the command center while performing bimanual simultaneous drawing tasks provides the best noninvasive and inexpensive approach for demonstrating the laterality of the major hemisphere of a person (who is able to perform such tasks). Here, it is documented pictorially that bimanual simultaneous drawing of geometrical designs or straight lines, as well as moving the arms simultaneously from side to side (or up and down) while noting the difference of speed of the two arms (represented by the distance between the two index fingers), both provide a reliable indication of the laterality of a person’s major hemisphere. In all these maneuvers the nondominant side of the body (even the diaphragms) lags behind the dominant side by an interval equal to the interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). This lagging behind of the nondominant side of the body in bimanual simultaneous movements is the footprint of directionality of callosal traffic underpinning the laterality of motor control evidenced by worsening of the delay of the nondominant side following callosotomy (uncoupling). Here, the historical precedence of a novel understanding in motor control together with its neurological implications in daily life as well as in laterality of seizure onset are briefly addressed, pointing out the deleterious effects of Sir Isaac Newton’s influence in neurological research on interhemispheric connectivity by suggesting symmetrical representation of visual sense of space in the human brain.
Keywords: speech, brain, hemisphere, motor, control, callosotomy
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF]