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Baseline medication adherence and response to an electronically delivered health literacy intervention targeting adherence
Raymond L Ownby,1 Drenna Waldrop-Valverde,2 Joshua Caballero,3 Robin J Jacobs1
1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 2Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA
Abstract: Medication adherence in persons treated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be an important focus for intervention. While high levels of adherence are required for good clinical outcomes, research shows many patients do not achieve these levels. Despite multiple interventions to improve adherence, most require multiple sessions delivered by trained clinicians. Cost and lack of trained personnel limit the availability of these interventions. Alternatives to clinician-delivered interventions are interventions provided via electronic devices (eg, personal/tablet computers and smartphones). Modern technology allows devices to provide tailoring of content to patient characteristics and learning needs, and to be excellent platforms to deliver multimedia teaching content. The intervention reported drew on research on health literacy in persons with HIV and the relation of health literacy to medication adherence in persons treated for HIV to develop an electronically delivered application. Using the Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model as a conceptual framework for understanding patients' information needs, a computer-delivered intervention was developed, its usability and acceptability was assessed, and medication adherence in 118 patients for 1 month before and after they completed the intervention was evaluated. Changes in participant adherence were evaluated in sequential models with progressively lower levels of baseline medication adherence. Results show that although changes in adherence in the entire sample only approached statistical significance, individuals with adherence less than 95% showed significant increases in adherence over time. Participants' self-reported knowledge and behavioral skills increased over the course of the study. Their change in information predicted their post-intervention adherence, suggesting a link between the intervention's effects and outcomes. A computer-delivered intervention targeting HIV-related health literacy may thus be a useful strategy for improving patient adherence.
Keywords: health literacy, medication adherence, cognition
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