Bacterial Meningitis Among Adult Patients at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Referral Hospital
Received 10 December 2020
Accepted for publication 28 January 2021
Published 15 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 565—574
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Abiye Tigabu,1 Abiyot Jember,2 Temesgen Nega,2 Getachew Wubishet,2 Hana Misganaw,2 Tigist Goshu,2 Markos Negash3
1Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 3Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Abiye Tigabu
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Gondar, Postal Address: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia
Background: Bacterial meningitis is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. The most frequent causes of bacterial meningitis are Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae. This study aimed to determine bacterial meningitis and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among adult patients.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on records of 3,683 patients to determine bacterial meningitis and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns from 2011 to 2020. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected, inoculated on blood and chocolate agar plates, and then incubated at 37°c for 24 hours. Bacterial identification performed using morphological characters, Gram stain, and biochemical tests. And then antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using modified Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion technique. Records of 3,683 culture results were collected and reviewed using a checklist from the registration book. Finally, data was entered, cleared, and checked using Epi-info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis.
Results: Of the 3,683 patients, the overall prevalence of culture-positive bacterial meningitis was 1.28% (47/3683). Of them, bacterial meningitis in males was 1.61% (33/2052). Streptococcus pneumoniae (32%, 15/47) was the commonest isolate followed by Staphylococcus aureus, (12.80%, 6/47), Escherichia coli, (12.80%, 6/47), and Neisseria meningitidis, (10.60%, 5/47). Out of 47 culture-positive isolates, 15 of them were MDR isolates. Ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, clindamycin, and erythromycin were the most effective antibiotics whereas penicillin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were the least effective antibiotics for isolates. Gender (P = 0.047, AOR = 0.528, CI = 0.282– 0.99) is significantly associated with bacterial meningitis.
Conclusion: The prevalence of bacterial meningitis among adult patients was 1.28%. Males are at high risk for bacterial meningitis compared to females. Therefore, infection preventive measures are required with a particular focus on adult patients. Further research is needed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of bacterial meningitis.
Keywords: bacterial meningitis, adult patients, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, Gondar
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