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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: genetics, epidemiology, and treatment

Authors Reed-Gitomer B

Received 18 June 2014

Accepted for publication 4 September 2014

Published 31 October 2014 Volume 2014:4 Pages 173—183

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/AGG.S53161

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Dr John Martignetti

Berenice Reed-Gitomer

Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA

Abstract: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common potentially lethal genetic disorder, accounting for 2%–8% of end-stage renal disease worldwide. While development of renal cysts is the major characteristic of ADPKD, several disease-related complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of renal replacement therapies, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among ADPKD patients. Loss of renal function requiring renal replacement therapy occurs in 50% of patients by the age of 60 years. The results of recent large epidemiological studies in ADPKD have shown little progress in delaying onset of renal failure despite an improvement in patient mortality. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in elucidating the genetics of the disorder. Genetic testing is now available in most countries, and development of more reliable methods for prenatal diagnosis of ADPKD has increased the sensitivity of testing. While there are no approved drugs for treatment of ADPKD within the USA, the first agent targeting renal disease progression in this disorder was recently approved for clinical use in Japan. Furthermore, several additional drugs for treatment of ADPKD are currently under clinical investigation. Overall, this presents an optimistic future for new therapeutic interventions in this disease. This paper reviews the current knowledge related to the epidemiology, genetics, and treatment of ADPKD.

Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, hereditary renal disease, renal cyst, genetics

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