Attenuated Renal and Hepatic Cells Apoptosis Following Swimming Exercise Supplemented with Garlic Extract in Old Rats
Received 21 February 2020
Accepted for publication 8 July 2020
Published 18 August 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 1409—1418
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Parvin Farzanegi,1 Hajar Abbaszadeh,1 Farzaneh Farokhi,2 Saleh Rahmati-Ahmadabad,3 Seyed Ali Hosseini,4 Abdi Ahmad,5 Mohammad Reza Mazandarani,6 Iraj Rezaei,1 Mohammad Shokrie,1 Exir Vizvari,7 Hadi Alinejad,1 Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani8
1Department of Exercise Physiology, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran; 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran; 3Department of Physical Education, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis, Iran; 4Department of Sport Physiology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran; 5Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Physical Education, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran; 6Department of Physical Education, Farhangian University, Gorgan, Iran; 7Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Humanities, Shams Institute of Higher Education, Gonbad Kavous, Iran; 8Department of Exercise Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence: Parvin Farzanegi
Department of Exercise Physiology, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
Background/Objective: One of the problems associated with aging is the development of apoptosis in different tissues. There is evidence that physical activity and herbal remedies can be useful. This study aimed to determine the effect of swimming training (SW) alone or combined with garlic extract on renal and hepatic cells apoptosis, as wellas on the liver and kidney function biomarkers in old rats.
Methods: A total of 35 old rats (aged 40– 50 weeks) were randomly divided into 5 groups including control, saline (S), exercise training (ET), garlic (G) and exercise training+ garlic (ET.G) groups. Exercise was started for 5 min/day and then gradually extended to 60 min/day and the G and E+G groups received 1 mL/kg of this mixture by gavage. Twenty-four hours after completion of 8 weeks training, liver, kidney and blood samples were collected for histopathological examinations, liver and kidney functions, oxidative stress and apoptosis biomarkers.
Results: The tissue sections of the SW exercise, control and saline groups showed some mild histopathological changes in liver and kidney, while SW supplemented with garlic prevented these damages. The SW alone or supplemented with garlic significantly increased the Bcl-2 value and declined the BAX level in both liver and kidney (p< 0.05). The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver and kidney of the control and saline groups were lower than those in E, G and G+E groups, while a significant increase for malondialdehyde (MDA) value was found in the control and saline groups. Furthermore, the E+G significantly declined the activity of hepatic (ALT, AST and ALP) and renal damage (uric acid, urea and creatinine) biomarkers compared to the control and saline groups (p< 0.05).
Discussion: Swimming exercise supplemented with garlic extract not only improves antioxidant capacity but also declines oxidative damages and apoptosis through reducing Bax levels and enhancing Bcl-2 value.
Keywords: apoptosis, garlic extract, antioxidant, oxidative stress, swimming exercise, old rats
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