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Atrial fibrillation: risk factors and comorbidities in a tertiary center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors Mashat AA, Subki AH, Bakhaider MA, Baabdullah WM, Walid JB, Alobudi AH, Fakeeh MM, Algethmi AJ, Alhejily WA

Received 1 October 2018

Accepted for publication 3 December 2018

Published 11 January 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 71—77


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Abdullah Abdulfattah Mashat, Ahmed Hussein Subki, Moaz Abdulrahman Bakhaider, Wejdan Mohammad Baabdullah, Jawaher Badr Walid, Abdulrahman Hatim Alobudi, Maged Mazen Fakeeh, Anas Jamal Algethmi, Wesam Awad Alhejily

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia worldwide and carries significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of AF is high in significant parts of the world, but not much is known from countries, such as Saudi Arabia.
Aims: To study the risk factors, etiologies, comorbidities, and outcome of AF in Saudi Arabia. 
Patients and methods: A retrospective study was conducted in King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Jeddah during the period 2010–2017. Data were collected from both the electronic-and paper-based medical records of patients with AF. The data included the demographic information, adverse lifestyle (smoking and obesity), cardiothoracic surgery, and comorbidities.
Results: A total of 167 patients were included in the analysis (43% were males). The mean age was 63.3±35 years and the mean body mass index was 28.8±83. Hypertension (HTN) was the most prevalent risk factor encountered (73.1%). This was followed by valvular heart disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which occurred in 58.7% and 53.3% of patients, respectively. Valvular heart disease was significantly associated with older age (P=0.002) and coronary artery disease (CAD) (P=0.001). Heart failure (HF) was associated with HTN (P=0.005), coronary heart disease (P=0.001), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (P=0.003).
Conclusion: AF was more prevalent among females in Saudi Arabia. HTN, valvular heart disease, and T2DM were the most prevalent risk factors of AF in Saudi Arabia. Valvular heart disease was more prevalent among older patients and significantly associated with CAD. HTN, CAD, and CKD were the most significant risk factors for HF in patients with AF.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, comorbidities, complications, risk factors, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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