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Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

Authors Orta O, Barbosa C, Velez JC, Gelaye B, Chen X, Stoner L, Williams MA

Received 15 January 2016

Accepted for publication 26 February 2016

Published 10 June 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 181—188

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S104338

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Prof. Dr. Roumen Kirov

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Steven A Shea


Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1

1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective) and actigraphic (objective) sleep traits.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities.
Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective) sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective) sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0.71, standard error [SE] =0.25; P=0.006) and objective sleep (β=–0.42, SE =0.19; P=0.026).
Conclusion: The association between sleep and depression differed comparing subjective and objective methods of assessment. Research strategies allowing for the integration of both perceived and objective measures of sleep traits are encouraged.

Keywords: actigraphy, caregiver, Chile, depression, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, sleep

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