Back to Journals » Journal of Blood Medicine » Volume 4

Association of vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism with anemia: a cross-sectional study

Authors Golbahar J, Altayab D, Carreon E, Darwish A

Received 24 April 2013

Accepted for publication 21 June 2013

Published 30 August 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 123—128


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Jamal Golbahar,1,2 Diab Altayab,1,2 Elizareth Carreon,1,2 Abdullah Darwish3

1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain; 2Diagnostic Services, HH Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Genetic Diagnosis and Research, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain; 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory, Royal Medical Services, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain

Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency and anemia are common in the Middle East, and vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism have been reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of anemia. In this study, the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism may be associated with anemia in a Bahraini population was tested. Association of hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D levels (deficiency and insufficiency) with anemia was investigated in 421 Bahrainis (213 males and 208 females). In females, the prevalence of anemia was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independent of parathyroid hormone levels (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 2.3–10.5; P = 0.001). In females, the prevalence of anemia appeared to be significantly associated with hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.7; P = 0.01); however, this significant association disappeared when adjusted for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.75–6.5; P = 0.154). Results from this study suggest that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with anemia in females but not males. Further studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation could be used to treat anemia are warranted.

Keywords: vitamin D, deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, anemia

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]