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Association of diabetes knowledge with glycemic control and self-care practices among Pakistani people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Authors Bukhsh A, Khan TM, Sarfraz Nawaz M, Sajjad Ahmed H, Chan KG, Goh BH

Received 22 March 2019

Accepted for publication 29 June 2019

Published 14 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1409—1417

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S209711

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou


Allah Bukhsh,1,2 Tahir Mehmood Khan,1,2 Muhammad Sarfraz Nawaz,3 Hafiz Sajjad Ahmed,4 Kok Gan Chan,5,6 Bey-Hing Goh1,2,7,8

1School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Capital Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan; 5International Genome Centre, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China; 6Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 7Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 8Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia

Objective: This study explored the relationship of disease knowledge with glycemic control and self-care practices in adult Pakistani people diabetes (PWD).
Methods: People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n=218) were selected from three health care centers, located in different cities of Pakistan. Disease knowledge and self-care practices were assessed by Urdu versions of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) and Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ), using a cross-sectional design. Chi-square and correlation analysis were applied to explore the relationship of disease knowledge with glycemic control and self-care practices. Linear regression was used to explore the predictors for disease knowledge.
Results: Majority of the sample was >45–60 years old (48.8%), suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus for <5 years (49.5%) and had poor glycemic control (HbA1C≥7%; n=181 participants). Disease knowledge was significantly associated (p<0.05) with patient’s gender, level of education, family history of diabetes, nature of euglycemic therapy, and glycemic control. Correlation matrix showed strongly inverse correlations of DKQ with glycated hemoglobin levels (r=−0.62; p<0.001) and strongly positive with DSMQ sum scale (r=0.63; p<0.001). PWD having university-level education (β=0.22; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.189, 0.872; p<0.01), doing job (β=0.22; 95% CI 0.009, 0.908]; p=0.046), and use of oral hypoglycemic agents in combination with insulin (β=−0.16; 95% CI [−1.224, −0.071]; p=0.028) were the significant predictors for disease knowledge.
Conclusion: Disease knowledge significantly correlated with glycated hemoglobin levels and self-care activities of PWD. These findings will help in designing patient-tailored diabetes educational interventions for yielding a higher probability of achieving target glycemic control.

Keywords: knowledge, glycated hemoglobin, self-management, glycemic control, HbA1c

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