Association of diabetes knowledge with glycemic control and self-care practices among Pakistani people with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Received 22 March 2019
Accepted for publication 29 June 2019
Published 14 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1409—1417
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou
Allah Bukhsh,1,2 Tahir Mehmood Khan,1,2 Muhammad Sarfraz Nawaz,3 Hafiz Sajjad Ahmed,4 Kok Gan Chan,5,6 Bey-Hing Goh1,2,7,8
1School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Capital Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan; 5International Genome Centre, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, People’s Republic of China; 6Division of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 7Biofunctional Molecule Exploratory (BMEX) Research Group, School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 8Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia
Objective: This study explored the relationship of disease knowledge with glycemic control and self-care practices in adult Pakistani people diabetes (PWD).
Methods: People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n=218) were selected from three health care centers, located in different cities of Pakistan. Disease knowledge and self-care practices were assessed by Urdu versions of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) and Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ), using a cross-sectional design. Chi-square and correlation analysis were applied to explore the relationship of disease knowledge with glycemic control and self-care practices. Linear regression was used to explore the predictors for disease knowledge.
Results: Majority of the sample was >45–60 years old (48.8%), suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus for <5 years (49.5%) and had poor glycemic control (HbA1C≥7%; n=181 participants). Disease knowledge was significantly associated (p<0.05) with patient’s gender, level of education, family history of diabetes, nature of euglycemic therapy, and glycemic control. Correlation matrix showed strongly inverse correlations of DKQ with glycated hemoglobin levels (r=−0.62; p<0.001) and strongly positive with DSMQ sum scale (r=0.63; p<0.001). PWD having university-level education (β=0.22; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.189, 0.872; p<0.01), doing job (β=0.22; 95% CI 0.009, 0.908]; p=0.046), and use of oral hypoglycemic agents in combination with insulin (β=−0.16; 95% CI [−1.224, −0.071]; p=0.028) were the significant predictors for disease knowledge.
Conclusion: Disease knowledge significantly correlated with glycated hemoglobin levels and self-care activities of PWD. These findings will help in designing patient-tailored diabetes educational interventions for yielding a higher probability of achieving target glycemic control.
Keywords: knowledge, glycated hemoglobin, self-management, glycemic control, HbA1c
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