Association of Daily Home-Based Hot Water Bathing and Glycemic Control in Ambulatory Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
Authors Kamioka H, Mori Y, Horiuchi T, Hayashi T, Ohmura K, Yamaguchi S, Kato M
Received 12 September 2020
Accepted for publication 7 December 2020
Published 22 December 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 5059—5069
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Juei-Tang Cheng
Hiroharu Kamioka,1 Yasunori Mori,2 Takahiko Horiuchi,3 Takahito Hayashi,4 Koichiro Ohmura,5 Satoru Yamaguchi,6 Mitsutoshi Kato7
1Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; 2Mie Prefecture Health and Environment Research Institute, Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, Beppu, Oita, Japan; 4Department of Legal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan; 5Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Oriental Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan; 7Kato Clinic of Internal Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Correspondence: Hiroharu Kamioka
Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
Tel/Fax +81 35477 2587
Email [email protected]
Purpose: To clarify the relationship between daily hot water bathing (HWB) at home and glycemic control in middle-aged and elderly ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: We defined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as the main outcome. We set 7.0% based on the mean value of the dependent variable as the cut-off point for analysis. Frequency of HWB was an explanatory variable. A two-sample t-test was used to compare between groups with continuous variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for frequency, adjusted age, sex, BMI, T2DM duration (Model 1), and other confounding factors (Model 2). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated.
Results: Among 838 patients, there was a significant difference (p< 0.001) in age between males (n=528, 62.8± 8.7 years) and females (n=310, 65.0± 8.1 years). In Model 1, compared with participants who used HWB more than seven times a week, those with poorly controlled HbA1c were significantly associated with low frequency of HWB: four to six times a week (OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.87– 1.99) and less than three times a week (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.98– 2.10); p-value for overall trend was 0.041. In Model 2, p-value for overall trend was 0.138.
Conclusion: A higher frequency of HWB was moderately associated with a decreased risk of poor glycemic control in middle-aged and elderly ambulatory patients with T2DM.
Keywords: hot water bathing, type 2 diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, middle-aged and elderly ambulatory patients
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