Association of code status discussion with invasive procedures among advanced-stage cancer and noncancer patients
Received 13 March 2017
Accepted for publication 8 June 2017
Published 14 July 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 207—214
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Akinori Sasaki,1 Eiji Hiraoka,1 Yosuke Homma,2 Osamu Takahashi,3 Yasuhiro Norisue,4 Koji Kawai,5 Shigeki Fujitani4
1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City, Chiba, 3Department of Internal Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 4Department of Critical Care Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu City, Chiba, 5Department of Gastroenterology, Ito Municipal Hospital, Ito City, Shizuoka, Japan
Background: Code status discussion is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures among terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated the association between code status discussion on admission and incidence of invasive procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and opioid use among inpatients with advanced stages of cancer and noncancer diseases.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in a single center, Ito Municipal Hospital, Japan. Participants were patients who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine between October 1, 2013 and August 30, 2015, with advanced-stage cancer and noncancer. We collected demographic data and inquired the presence or absence of code status discussion within 24 hours of admission and whether invasive procedures, including central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR for cardiac arrest, and opioid treatment were performed. We investigated the factors associated with CPR events by using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: Among the total 232 patients, code status was discussed with 115 patients on admission, of which 114 (99.1%) patients had do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders. The code status was not discussed with the remaining 117 patients on admission, of which 69 (59%) patients had subsequent code status discussion with resultant DNR orders. Code status discussion on admission decreased the incidence of central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR in both cancer and noncancer patients. It tended to increase the rate of opioid use. Code status discussion on admission was the only factor associated with the decreased use of CPR (P<0.001, odds ratio =0.03, 95% CI =0.004−0.21), which was found by using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Conclusion: Code status discussion on admission is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures and CPR in cancer and noncancer patients. Physicians should be educated about code status discussion to improve end-of-life care.
Keywords: noncancer, end-of-life discussion, palliative care, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, DNR, quality of death
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