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Association between serum zinc and copper levels and antioxidant defense in subjects infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1

Authors Abolbashari S, Darroudi S, Tayefi M, Khashyarmaneh Z, Zamani P, Moalemzadeh Haghighi H, Mohammadpour AH, Tavalaei S, Ahmadnezhad M, Esmaily H, Ferns GA, Meshkat Z, Ghayour-Mobarhan M

Received 22 August 2018

Accepted for publication 15 November 2018

Published 27 December 2018 Volume 2019:10 Pages 29—35

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S184913

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth


Samaneh Abolbashari,1,* Susan Darroudi,1,* Maryam Tayefi,2,3 Zahra Khashyarmaneh,4 Parvin Zamani,5 Hamideh Moalemzadeh Haghighi,4 Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour,6,7 Shima Tavalaei,8 Mahsa Ahmadnezhad,9 Habibollah Esmaily,10 Gordon A Ferns,11 Zahra Meshkat,12 Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan8

1Student Research Committee, Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 2Cardiovascular Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran; 3University International Accreditation, International Office, Clinical Research Unit, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 5Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 6Pharmaceutical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 7Clinical Pharmacy Department, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 8Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 9Nutrition Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 10Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 11Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Division of Medical Education, Falmer, Brighton, Sussex, UK; 12Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Introduction:
Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are important trace elements that are also structural ions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which reduce oxidative stress. Zinc deficiency and excess copper have been reported to be associated with inflammation. The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus, which is believed to cause systemic inflammation. The aim of this study is to measure levels of Zn, Cu, SOD, and prooxidant–antioxidant balance (PAB) in HTLV-1-positive patients and investigate the association between serum Zn and Cu concentrations and levels of oxidative stress in them.
Methods: The serum samples of 1,116 subjects who had participated in the “Mashhad Stroke and Heart Atherosclerotic Disorder” study, including 279 HTLV-1-positive and 837 HTLV-1-negative patients, were used. Levels of Zn, Cu, SOD, and PAB were measured.
Results: Zinc and SOD levels were lower in the HTLV-1-positive group; however, the difference was statistically significant only for the level of SOD (P=0.003). On the other hand, levels of copper and PAB were significantly higher in HTLV-1 positive subjects; P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively.
Conclusion: In HTLV-infected patients, serum Zn concentration is lower and Cu concentration is higher than healthy controls. This altered situation might be either primary or secondary to HTLV-1 infection, which should be investigated in larger studies. We showed that SOD is significantly lower in HTLV-1-infected subjects. As in some other viruses that evolve different mechanisms to potentiate virus replication by changing the physiologic condition of host cells, HTLV-1 too probably decreases the activity of copper–zinc SOD1 by suppressing its gene.

Keywords: HTLV-1, trace elements, superoxide dismutase, prooxidant-oxidant balance

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