Association between serum cystatin C and bone mineral density in Korean adults
Received 10 August 2017
Accepted for publication 18 October 2017
Published 22 November 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 1521—1528
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh
Dongwon Yi,1,2 Ah Reum Khang,1,2 Hye Won Lee,1,2 Seok Man Son,1,2 Yang Ho Kang1,2
1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 2Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea
Background: Serum cystatin C has been known as a novel marker of preclinical renal dysfunction, and higher cystatin C levels are associated with increased risks of hip and nonvertebral fractures. However, there are few reports on the association between serum cystatin C and bone mineral density (BMD), especially in the Asian population. We evaluated the association between cystatin C levels and BMD of the spine and hip in Korean adults.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 865 Korean adults (325 men and 540 women) who participated in a comprehensive medical examination program and underwent bone densitometry. Renal function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was calculated using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcre) and cystatin C (eGFRcys).
Results: The serum cystatin C level was negatively correlated with different types of BMD, including the lowest lumbar, total lumbar, femoral neck, and total femur BMD, in women, but not in men. Higher cystatin C levels were associated with a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in women (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69–8.03; P=0.001), but not in men (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.30–2.38; P=0.761). However, this association was attenuated in the multivariable model adjusted for age, body mass index, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and creatinine (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.38–2.71) in women. In addition, the eGFRcys showed a stronger positive correlation with BMD than the eGFRcre.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum cystatin C levels might help identify women with osteoporosis who are susceptible to fractures.
Keywords: cystatin C, bone density, osteoporosis, glomerular filtration rate
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