Association Between Cognitive Impairment and Blood Pressure Among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Southern Iran
Received 12 November 2019
Accepted for publication 15 January 2020
Published 5 February 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 289—296
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Juei-Tang Cheng
Sheida Jamalnia,1 Sorur Javanmardifard,2 Hamed Akbari,3,4 Erfan Sadeghi,5,6 Mostafa Bijani7
1Medical Journalism Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran; 3Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 4Department of Biochemistry, Afzalipur Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 5Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran; 6Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 7Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran
Correspondence: Mostafa Bijani
Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa 86688-74616, Iran
Fax +98 7153357091
Purpose: Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension are regarded as life-threatening diseases known to be risk factors for vascular diseases. They may be associated with the increased risk of cognitive impairment (CI), although there are conflicting data relating hypertension to the risk of CI. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the probable association between hypertension and CI in patients with T2DM.
Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the degree of CI of a total of 350 patients with T2DM using the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE). In clinical examinations, the mean of the first, second, and third measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was recorded.
Results: The mean of subjects’ MMSE scores was 25.48 ± 3.73. Additionally, the means of SBPSs and DBPs were found to be 118.50 ± 17.27 and 73.47 ± 10.25 mmHg, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficient showed a mild, significant, negative correlation between MMSE scores and those of SBP (r = − 0.199, p < 0.001) and DBP (r = − 0.233, p < 0.001). Accordingly, a 1-unit increase in one’s SBP would lead to a significant rise in mild CI (2.8%) in comparison with subjects who have normal CIs. However, it was shown that if one’s DBP increased by 1 unit, the odds of mild CI occurring would increase significantly by 6.7% compared with those who have normal CIs.
Conclusion: The present findings revealed that hypertension might be related to the development of CI in people with a diabetic condition, thus emphasizing the fact that the prevention and treatment of these highly prevalent diseases assume the utmost significance.
Keywords: blood pressure, cognitive impairment, hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus
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