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Inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30 induces complex immune activating, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative markers in vitro

Authors Jensen GS, Cash HA, Farmer S, Keller D

Received 27 May 2017

Accepted for publication 10 July 2017

Published 7 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 107—117

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S141660

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan

Gitte S Jensen,1 Howard A Cash,2 Sean Farmer,2 David Keller2

1NIS Labs, Esplanade, Klamath Falls, OR, USA, 2Ganeden Biotech Inc., Landerbrook Drive Suite, Mayfield Heights, OH, USA

Objective:
The aim of this study was to document the immune activating and anti-inflammatory effects of inactivated probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (Staimune™) cells on human immune cells in vitro.
Methods: In vitro cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy blood donors were treated with inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells for 24 hours. After incubation, the PBMC were stained with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies for CD3, CD56, and CD69 to monitor cellular activation by flow cytometry. The culture supernatants were tested for cytokine profile using a 27-plex Luminex array, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.
Results: Inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells induced the CD69 early activation marker on CD3+ CD56T lymphocytes, CD3+ CD56+ NKT cells, CD3CD56+ NK cells, and also some cells within the CD3CD56 non-T non-NK cell subset. Culture supernatants showed robust increases in the immune-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α. IFN-γ levels were increased, along with three chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. The two anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ra and IL-10 showed increases, as well as the G-CSF growth factor involved in repair and stem cell biology. In contrast, GM-CSF levels showed a mild decrease, showing a highly selective growth factor response.
Conclusion: The inactivated B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 cells activated human immune cells and altered the production of both immune activating and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Of special importance is the novel demonstration of a selective upregulation of the G-CSF growth factor involved in postinjury and postinflammation repair and regeneration. This suggests that important immunogenic cell wall components, such as lipoteichoic acid, are undamaged after the inactivation and retain the complex beneficial biological activities previously demonstrated for the cell walls from live B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (GanedenBC30) probiotic bacteria.

Keywords: anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, cytokines, growth factors, lipoteichoic acid, inactivated bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, Staimune

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