Thrombophilic screening in retinal artery occlusion patients
Valeria Nagy1, Lili Takacs1, Zita Steiber1, György Pfliegler2, Andras Berta1
1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Rare Diseases, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, Hungary
Background: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is an ischemic vascular damage of the retina, which frequently leads to sudden, mostly irreversible loss of vision. In this study, blood thrombophilic factors as well as cardiovascular risk factors were investigated for their relevance to this pathology. Thrombophilic risk factors so far not evaluated were included in the study.
Patients and methods: 28 RAO patients and 81 matched control subjects were examined. From blood samples, protein C, protein S, antithrombinopathy, and factor V (Leiden) mutation (FV), factor II gene polymorphism, factor VIII C level, plasminogen activity, lipoprotein(a) and fibrinogen levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and presence of anticardiolipin – antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated. Possibly relevant pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were also registered. Statistical analysis by logistic regression was performed with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: In the group of patients with RAO only the incidence of hypertension (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30–9.70, p = 0.014) as an average risk factor showed significant difference, but thrombophilic factors such as hyperfibrinogenemia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29–6.57, p = 0.010) and the presence of FV (Leiden mutation) (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.43–10.96, p = 0.008) increased the chances of developing this disease.
Conclusions: Our results support the assumption that thrombophilia may contribute to the development of RAO besides vascular damage due to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed, however, to justify the possible use of secondary prophylaxis in form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.
Keywords: retinal arterial occlusion, risk factors, thrombophilia
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