Back to Browse Journals » Vascular Health and Risk Management » Volume 9

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with development of subclinical coronary artery disease in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham-defined cardiovascular risk

Authors Lai H, Fishman EK, Gerstenblith G, Moore R, Brinker JA, Keruly JC, Chen S, Detrick B, Lai S

Published Date November 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 729—737

DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S50537

Received 26 June 2013, Accepted 12 August 2013, Published 15 November 2013

Hong Lai,1 Elliot K Fishman,1 Gary Gerstenblith,2 Richard Moore,2 Jeffrey A Brinker,2 Jeanne C Keruly,2 Shaoguang Chen,3 Barbara Detrick,3 Shenghan Lai1–3

1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Abstract: Chronic cocaine use may lead to premature atherosclerosis, but the prevalence of and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic cocaine users have not been reported. The objective of this study was to examine whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of CAD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk.
Methods: In this prospective follow-up study, we investigated 169 HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham risk at baseline. The main outcome measures were incidence of subclinical CAD and development of subclinical CAD.
Results: Fifty of the 169 African Americans had evidence of subclinical disease on the initial cardiac computed tomography. A second cardiac computed tomography was performed on the 119 African Americans without disease on the first scan. The total sum of person-years of follow-up was 289.6. Subclinical CAD was detected in 11 of these, yielding an overall incidence of 3.80/100 person-years (95% confidence interval 1.90–6.80). Among the factors investigated, only vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with development of subclinical CAD. The study did not find significant associations between CD4 count, HIV viral load, or antiretroviral treatment use and the incidence of subclinical CAD. This study appears to suggest that there is a threshold level of vitamin D (10 ng/mL) above which the effect of vitamin D on subclinical CAD is diminished.
Conclusion: The incidence of subclinical CAD in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk is high, especially in those with vitamin D deficiency. Well designed randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm the role of vitamin D deficiency in the development of CAD in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk.

Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, subclinical coronary artery disease, cocaine use, prospective follow-up study, African Americans

Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML] 

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php

Other article by this author:

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with coronary artery calcification in cardiovascularly asymptomatic African Americans with HIV infection

Lai S, Fishman EK, Gerstenblith G, Brinker J, Tai H, Chen S, Li J, Tong W, Detrick B, Lai H

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2013, 9:493-500

Published Date: 26 August 2013

Readers of this article also read:

Frailty syndrome: an overview

Chen XJ, Mao GX, Leng SX

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2014, 9:433-441

Published Date: 19 March 2014

Serum lipid profile and correlates in newly presenting Nigerians with arterial hypertension

Adamu UG, Okuku GA, Oladele CO, Abdullahi A, Oduh JI, Fasae AJ

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2013, 9:763-768

Published Date: 3 December 2013

Changes in LDL-C levels and goal attainment associated with addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin compared with titrating statin monotherapy

Foody JM, Toth PP, Tomassini JE, Sajjan S, Ramey DR, Neff D, Tershakovec AM, Hu H, Tunceli K

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2013, 9:719-727

Published Date: 15 November 2013

Lipid profiles and inflammatory markers after periodontal treatment in children with congenital heart disease and at risk for atherosclerosis

Bresolin AC, Pronsatti MM, Pasqualotto LN, Nassar PO, Jorge AS, Silva EA, Nassar CA

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2013, 9:703-709

Published Date: 11 November 2013

Linagliptin as add-on therapy to insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes

von Websky K, Reichetzeder C, Hocher B

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2013, 9:681-694

Published Date: 1 November 2013

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with coronary artery calcification in cardiovascularly asymptomatic African Americans with HIV infection

Lai S, Fishman EK, Gerstenblith G, Brinker J, Tai H, Chen S, Li J, Tong W, Detrick B, Lai H

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2013, 9:493-500

Published Date: 26 August 2013

Comparison of outcome in 1809 patients treated with drug-eluting stents or bare-metal stents in a real-world setting

Vogt A, Schoelmerich A, Pollner F, Schlitt M, Raaz U, Maegdefessel L, Reindl I, Buerke M, Werdan K, Schlitt A

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2011, 7:693-699

Published Date: 22 November 2011

Role of bendamustine in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Saad Jamshed, Bruce D Cheson

OncoTargets and Therapy 2009, 2:43-49

Published Date: 12 March 2009