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Application of Nanotechnology in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors Yang D

Received 9 December 2020

Accepted for publication 8 January 2021

Published 26 January 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 623—649


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Dongki Yang

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, 21999, South Korea

Correspondence: Dongki Yang
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, South Korea
Tel +82-32-899-6072
Fax +82-32-899-6588

Abstract: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has been prevalent worldwide for almost a year. In early 2000, there was an outbreak of SARS-CoV, and in early 2010, a similar dissemination of infection by MERS-CoV occurred. However, no clear explanation for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and a massive increase in the number of infections has yet been proposed. The best solution to overcome this pandemic is the development of suitable and effective vaccines and therapeutics. Fortunately, for SARS-CoV-2, the genome sequence and protein structure have been published in a short period, making research and development for prevention and treatment relatively easy. In addition, intranasal drug delivery has proven to be an effective method of administration for treating viral lung diseases. In recent years, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have been applied to intranasal drug delivery to overcome various limitations that occur during mucosal administration, and advances have been made to the stage where effective drug delivery is possible. This review describes the accumulated knowledge of the previous SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections and aims to help understand the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, it elucidates the achievements in developing COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics to date through existing approaches. Finally, the applicable nanotechnology approach is described in detail, and vaccines and therapeutic drugs developed based on nanomedicine, which are currently undergoing clinical trials, have presented the potential to become innovative alternatives for overcoming COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, antiviral drug, vaccines, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

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