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Antileukemic effect of zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in WEHI-3B cell-induced murine leukemia model

Authors Rahman H, Rasedee A, How CW, Zeenathul NA, Chartrand M, Yeap SK, Abdul AB, Tan SW, Othman HH, Ajdari Z, Namvar F, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S, Mehrbod P, Daneshvar N, Begum H

Received 4 May 2014

Accepted for publication 28 June 2014

Published 2 March 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 1649—1666


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,1–3 Abdullah Rasedee,1,2 Chee Wun How,2 Nazariah Allaudin Zeenathul,1,2 Max Stanley Chartrand,4 Swee Keong Yeap,2 Ahmad Bustamam Abdul,2,5 Sheau Wei Tan,2 Hemn Hassan Othman,1,3 Zahra Ajdari,6 Farideh Namvar,7 Palanisamy Arulselvan,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2,5 Parvaneh Mehrbod,2 Nasibeh Daneshvar,2 Hasina Begum2

1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimany, Sulaimany City, Northern Iraq; 4DigiCare Behavioral Research, Casa Grande, AZ, USA; 5Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 7Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Abstract: Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER) has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects of ZER-NLC. In conclusion, ZER-NLC was shown to induce a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in murine leukemia. Loading of ZER in NLC did not compromise the anticancer effect of the compound, suggesting ZER-NLC as a promising and effective delivery system for treatment of cancers.

Keywords: zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier, leukemia, WEHI-3B cells, BALB/c mice, apoptosis, mitochondrial pathway

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