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Antihyperglycemic Activity of TLC Isolates from the Leaves of Aloe megalacantha Baker in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors Araya TY, Karim A, Hailu GS, Periasamy G, Kahsay G

Received 23 October 2020

Accepted for publication 15 February 2021

Published 15 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 1153—1166


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Tsgabu Yohannes Araya,1 Aman Karim,2 Gebremedhin Solomon Hailu,1 Gomathi Periasamy,2 Getu Kahsay3

1Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Getu Kahsay
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, P.O. Box 1871, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Fax +251 34 441 6681
Email [email protected]

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders that are characterized by hyperglycemia which results from defects in insulin release or its efficient use by the human body. Although significant progress has been made to manage DM and related complications, it remains a major global health problem. To this end, the search for new antidiabetic drugs from traditionally claimed medicinal plants is important. Aloe megalacantha Baker is an endemic plant used traditionally to treat diabetes in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate antidiabetic activity of isolates from the leaf of A. megalacantha Baker in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Methods: The exudate of A. megalacantha was collected by cutting the leaves and scraping the yellow sap and then dried at room temperature. The dried exudate was subjected to repeated thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separations using a mixture of solvent system to isolate the major compounds identified on the TLC plate. A single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to overnight fasted mice to induce diabetes. Antidiabetic activity of TLC isolates was assessed by in vivo methods including oral glucose tolerance test, antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic activity tests.
Results: Three major isolates were obtained from the TLC analysis of the exudate of A. megalacantha. Exudate and TLC isolates were found to be non-toxic up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The TLC isolates (Ia and Ib) significantly (p< 0.05) reduced blood glucose levels and also increased body weight change of the diabetic mice compared with control groups.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the ability of the exudate of A. megalacantha and its TLC isolates to significantly decrease blood glucose levels and increase body weights in mice, thus strengthening the claim of its traditional use in DM-related disorders.

Keywords: diabetes, antidiabetic, Aloe megalacantha Baker, streptozotocin, thin layer chromatography

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