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Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

Authors Jerobin J, Makwana P, Kumar R, Sundaramoorthy R, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N

Received 14 January 2015

Accepted for publication 19 March 2015

Published 1 October 2015 Volume 2015:10(Supplement 1 Challenges in biomaterials research) Pages 77—86


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster

Jayakumar Jerobin, Pooja Makwana, RS Suresh Kumar, Rajiv Sundaramoorthy, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran

Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract: Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity studies on human cells are still lacking. The neem NE showed a decrease in cellular viability in human lymphocytes after 24 hours of exposure. The neem NE at lower concentration (0.7–1 mg/mL) is found to be nontoxic while it is toxic at higher concentrations (1.2–2 mg/mL). The oxidative stress induced by the neem NE is evidenced by the depletion of catalase, SOD, and GSH levels in human lymphocytes. Neem NE showed a significant increase in DNA damage when compared to control in human lymphocytes (P<0.05). The NE is an effective antibacterial agent against the bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus, and it was found to be nontoxic at lower concentrations to human lymphocytes.

Keywords: neem, nanoemulsion, antibacterial, lymphocytes, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity

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