Anti-Metastatic Effect of Gold Nanoparticle-Conjugated Maclura tricuspidata Extract on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Authors Park SY, Kim B, Cui Z, Park G, Choi YW
Received 20 January 2020
Accepted for publication 8 July 2020
Published 27 July 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 5317—5331
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Sun Young Park,1 Beomjin Kim,2 Zhengwei Cui,3 Geuntae Park,4 Young-Whan Choi3
1Bio-IT Fusion Technology Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea; 2Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea; 3Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Myrang 627-706, Korea; 4Department of Nanofusion Technology, Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735, Korea
Correspondence: Geuntae Park
Department of Nanofusion Technology, Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea
Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706, Republic of Korea
Purpose: We aimed to study green-synthesized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from Maclura tricuspidata (MT) root (MTR), stem (MTS), leaf (MTL), and fruit (MTF) extracts and evaluate their anti-metastatic properties in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Maclura tricuspidata belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely used as a traditional medicinal plant given its biological activities.
Methods: We quantified the phenolic and flavonoid contents, reducing capacity, and antioxidant activity of all four extracts. The facile and optimum synthesis of MT-GNPs was visualized using UV-vis spectra and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Surface morphology, selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and fast Fourier transform (FFT) pattern of MT-GNPs were assessed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The crystallized gold pattern of MT-GNPs was evaluated using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The functionalizing ligands of MT-extracts and MT-GNPs were determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic capabilities of MT-GNPs were assessed by measuring the reduction of rhodamine B and methylene blue. Cell viability assay was detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 solution. Anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects were assessed using cell migration and invasion assays. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and phospholipase D (PLD) enzymatic activities were measured using gelatin zymography and Amplex Red PLD assay, respectively. Western blotting and luciferase assay were used to detect protein expression.
Results: All extracts had high phenolic and flavonoid contents and strong antioxidant and reducing capacities. Results from UV-Vis spectra, DLS, HR-TEM, EDS, XRD, and FT-IR showed the successful formation of MT-GNP with surface morphology, crystallinity, reduction capacity, capsulation, and stabilization. MTR-GNPs and MTS-GNPs had better catalytic activities than MTL-GNPs and MTF-GNPs for reduction of methylene blue and rhodamine B. Moreover, MTS-GNPs and MTR-GNPs exhibited the highest anti-migratory and anti-invasive potential and seemed to be more biologically active than the MTS and MTR extracts. Treatment with MT-GNPs decreased the enzymatic activity, translation levels of MMP-9 and PLD1. Our results showed that MTS-GNPs and MTR-GNPs could dramatically reverse transforming growth factor-β-induced vimentin and N-cadherin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation.
Conclusion: The application of GNPs as a potential treatment approach for hepatocellular carcinoma can improve therapeutic efficiency.
Keywords: MT-GNPs, Maclura tricuspidata, hepatocellular carcinoma cells, epithelial–mesenchymal transition
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]