Anti-inflammatory drug-eluting implant model system to prevent wear particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis
Received 20 September 2018
Accepted for publication 11 December 2018
Published 8 February 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1069—1084
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Alexander Kharlamov
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster
Melissa C Rivera,1 Stefano Perni,1 Alastair Sloan,2 Polina Prokopovich1
1School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 2School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, UK
Background: Aseptic loosening, as a consequence of an extended inflammatory reaction induced by wear particles, has been classified as one of the most common complications of total joint replacement (TJR). Despite its high incidence, no therapeutical approach has yet been found to prevent aseptic loosening, leaving revision as only effective treatment. The local delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to modulate wear-induced inflammation has been regarded as a potential therapeutical approach to prevent aseptic-loosening.
Methods: In this context, we developed and characterized anti-inflammatory drug-eluting TiO2 surfaces, using nanoparticles as a model for larger surfaces. The eluting surfaces were obtained by conjugating dexamethasone to carboxyl-functionalized TiO2 particles, obtained by using either silane agents with amino or mercapto moieties.
Results: Zeta potential measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and drug release results suggest that dexamethasone was successfully loaded onto the TiO2 particles. Release was pH dependent and greater amounts of drug were observed from amino route functionalized surfaces. The model-system was then tested for its cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Dexamethasone released from amino route functionalized surfaces TiO2 particles was able to decrease LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α production similarly to pure DEX at the same concentration; DEX released from mercapto route functionalized surfaces was at a too low concentration to be effective.
Conclusion: Dexamethasone released from amino functionalized titanium can offer the possibility of preventing asepting loosening of joint replacement devices.
Keywords: titanium, dexamethasone, macrophages, aseptic loosening, TJR, implant
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