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Anti-inflammatory activity of niosomes entrapped with Plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) by therapeutic ultrasound in a rat model

Authors Leelarungrayub J, Manorsoi J, Manorsoi A

Received 1 December 2016

Accepted for publication 26 January 2017

Published 29 March 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 2469—2476

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S129131

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Jirakrit Leelarungrayub,1 Jiradej Manorsoi,2,3 Aranya Manorsoi2,3

1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, 2Manose Health and Beauty Research Center, Mueng, 3Division of Cosmetic Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, North Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Plai oil–encapsulated niosomes (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) on inflamed subcutaneous Wistar rat skin by therapeutic ultrasound.
Methods: Pure oil from Plai rhizomes was extracted by steam distillation, and antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Bioactive compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Niosome particles containing Plai oil were prepared by chloroform film method with sonication before testing for anti-inflammatory activity on locally inflamed subcutaneous rat skin after inducement from lipopolysaccharide with ultrasound once a day for 3 days. Skin temperatures and blood flow were evaluated.
Results:
Plai oil presented antioxidant activity that inhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals. Four active compounds found in the essential oil were sabinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, and (E)-1-(3,4-dimethyoxy phenyl) butadiene. Application of ultrasound (0.2 W/cm2, 20%, 3 min) with gel containing Plai oil–encapsulated niosomes decreased skin temperature and blood flow to the lowest level compared to the application of neurofen drug or gel-based control.
Conclusion: Plai oil, which consists of four main bioactive compounds and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can be applied against local subcutaneous inflammation when used with therapeutic ultrasound via entrapped niosomes.

Keywords: antioxidant, anti-inflammation, Plai oil, niosomes, therapeutic ultrasound, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

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