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Anterior gradient protein 3 is associated with less aggressive tumors and better outcome of breast cancer patients

Authors Obacz J, Brychtova V, Podhorec J, Fabian P, Dobes P, Vojtesek B, Hrstka R

Received 4 February 2015

Accepted for publication 3 April 2015

Published 24 June 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 1523—1532

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S82235

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 6

Editor who approved publication: Dr William Cho


Joanna Obacz,1 Veronika Brychtova,1 Jan Podhorec,1 Pavel Fabian,2 Petr Dobes,1 Borivoj Vojtesek,1 Roman Hrstka1

1Regional Centre for Applied Molecular Oncology (RECAMO), 2Department of Pathology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic


Abstract: Anterior gradient protein (AGR) 3 is a highly related homologue of pro-oncogenic AGR2 and belongs to the family of protein disulfide isomerases. Although AGR3 was found in breast, ovary, prostate, and liver cancer, it remains of yet poorly defined function in tumo-rigenesis. This study aimed to determine AGR3 expression in a cohort of 129 primary breast carcinomas and evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of AGR3 in these tumors. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of AGR3 staining to varying degrees in 80% of analyzed specimens. The percentage of AGR3-positive cells significantly correlated with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (both P<0.0001) as well as low histological grade (P=0.003), and inversely correlated with the level of Ki-67 expression (P<0.0001). In the whole cohort, AGR3 expression was associated with longer progression-free survival (PFS), whereas AGR3-positive subgroup of low-histological grade tumors showed both significantly longer PFS and overall survival. In conclusion, AGR3 is associated with the level of differentiation, slowly proliferating tumors, and more favorable prognosis of breast cancer patients.

Keywords: AGR3, patient survival, protein disulfide isomerase, ER-positive breast cancer, immuno­histochemistry

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