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Angiogenesis and bone regeneration of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline blocks coated with rhVEGF165 in critical-size alveolar bone defects in vivo

Authors Du B, Liu W, Deng Y, Li S, Liu X, Gao Y, Zhou L, Chen J

Received 28 November 2014

Accepted for publication 26 January 2015

Published 31 March 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 2555—2565


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang

Bing Du,1,2 Weizhen Liu,1 Yue Deng,1,3 Shaobing Li,1 Xiangning Liu,4 Yan Gao,1 Lei Zhou1

1Department of Oral Implantology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Center of Stomatology, The First People’s Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Qingdao Stomatological Hospital, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China

Abstract: To improve the regenerative performance of nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline (nHA/coral) block grafting in a canine mandibular critical-size defect model, nHA/coral blocks were coated with recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor165 (rhVEGF) via physical adsorption (3 µg rhVEGF165 per nHA/coral block). After the nHA/coral blocks and VEGF/nHA/coral blocks were randomly implanted into the mandibular box-shaped defects in a split-mouth design, the healing process was evaluated by histological observation and histomorphometric and immunohistological analyses. The histological evaluations revealed the ingrowth of newly formed blood vessels and bone at the periphery and cores of the blocks in both groups at both 3 and 8 weeks postsurgery, respectively. In the histomorphometric analysis, the VEGF/nHA/coral group exhibited a larger quantity of new bone formation at 3 and 8 weeks postsurgery. The percentages of newly formed bone within the entire blocks in the VEGF/nHA/coral group were 27.3%±8.1% and 39.3%±12.8% at 3 weeks and 8 weeks, respectively, and these values were slightly greater than those of the nHA/coral group (21.7%±3.0% and 32.6%±10.3%, respectively), but the differences were not significant (P>0.05). The immunohistological evaluations revealed that the neovascular density in the VEGF/nHA/coral group (146±32.9 vessel/mm2) was much greater than that in the nHA/coral group (105±51.8 vessel/mm2) at the 3-week time point (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed at the 8-week time point (341±86.1 and 269±50.7 vessel/mm2, respectively, P>0.05). The present study indicated that nHA/coral blocks might be optimal scaffolds for block grafting in critical-size mandibular defects and that additional VEGF coating via physical adsorption can promote angiogenesis in the early stage of bone healing, which suggests that prevascularized nHA/coral blocks have significant potential as a bioactive material for bone regeneration in large-scale alveolar defects.

Keywords: angiogenesis, bone regeneration, tissue engineering, block grafting, nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline, critical size, bone defect

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