Anesthesia and perioperative pain management during cardiac electronic device implantation
Received 12 January 2017
Accepted for publication 7 March 2017
Published 19 April 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 927—932
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval
Marina Biocic,1 Dijana Vidosevic,2 Matija Boric,1,3 Teo Boric,4 Lovel Giunio,2 Damir Fabijanic,2 Livia Puljak1,5
1Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Abdominal Surgery, 4Department of Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Split, Split, 5Department for Development, Research and Health Technology Assessment, Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health Care and Social Welfare, Zagreb, Croatia
Background: The degree of pain caused by the implantation of cardiac electronic devices (CEDs) and the type of anesthesia or perioperative pain management used with the procedure have been insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to analyze perioperative pain management, as well as intensity and location of pain among patients undergoing implantation of CED, and to compare the practice with published guidelines.
Patients and methods: This was a combined retrospective and prospective study conducted at the tertiary hospital, University Hospital Split, Croatia. The sample included 372 patients who underwent CED implantation. Perioperative pain management was analyzed retrospectively in 321 patients who underwent CED implantation during 2014. In a prospective study, intensity and location of pain before, during, and after the procedure were measured by using a numerical rating scale (NRS) ranging from 0 to 10 in 51 patients at the same institution from November 2014 to August 2015.
Results: A quarter of patients received analgesia or sedation before surgery. All the patients received local lidocaine anesthesia. After surgery, 31% of patients received pain medication or sedation. The highest pain intensity was observed during CED implantation with the highest NRS pain score being 8. Some patients reported severe pain (NRS >5) also at 1, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. The most common pain locations were surgical site, shoulder, and chest. Adherence to guidelines for acute perioperative pain management was insufficient.
Conclusion: Patients may experience severe pain during and after CED implantation. Perioperative pain management was suboptimal, and higher doses of sedation and intensive analgesia are required. Guidelines for acute perioperative pain management and anesthesia during CED implantation should be developed.
Keywords: cardiac electronic devices, perioperative pain management, postoperative pain, analgesics, pain intensity, guidelines
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