Analysis of the diet quality and dietary habits of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
Received 3 September 2018
Accepted for publication 26 November 2018
Published 17 January 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 161—170
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou
Karolina Dłużniak-Gołaska,1 Mariusz Panczyk,2 Dorota Szostak-Węgierek,1 Agnieszka Szypowska,3 Beata Sińska4
1Department of Clinical Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 2Division of Teaching and Outcomes of Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Pediatrics, The First Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 4Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Introduction: The dietary habits of patients with type 1 diabetes are key elements of treatment as they facilitate the normalization of glycemia and maintenance of normal body weight (BW), lipid concentration, and the level of blood pressure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze dietary habits and to verify the influence of the quality of diet on insulin dosage and selected clinical variables.
Materials and methods: The study included 194 subjects (8–18 years old) suffering from type 1 diabetes and treated with the use of insulin pump. A modified KomPAN questionnaire was used to assess dietary habits and the frequency of the consumption of selected products. Two groups of patients were distinguished: G1 (poorer quality of diet) and G2 (better quality of diet). Clinical data were also collected.
Results: Very low scores were noted in the whole study group as regards the index of healthy diet (27.6±11.1, 3.8–61.0). After dividing the participants into groups, it was observed that G1 included more boys (63.8%), and more girls were found in G2 (66.9%). G2 patients chose sweet and salty snacks and fried meals less frequently, and they consumed boiled dishes and avoided sweetening with sugar or honey more frequently. The following characteristics were observed in G1 patients: longer duration of the disease (6.5 vs 5.2 years), higher doses of insulin (0.86 vs 0.76 U/kg of BW/day), and being overweight (31.0% vs 17.6%) and underweight (19.0% vs 8.8%) noted twice more frequently. We did not observe differences concerning the concentration of glycated hemoglobin and lipids in the serum and the values of blood pressure.
Conclusion: The findings revealed unsatisfactory dietary habits in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and indicated the necessity to analyze additional factors that might influence the quality of diet of the patients.
Keywords: quality of diet, dietary habits, type 1 diabetes, index of healthy diet, index of unhealthy diet
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