Back to Journals » Journal of Pain Research » Volume 4

Analgesic efficacy of CR4056, a novel imidazoline-2 receptor ligand, in rat models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain

Authors Ferrari, Fiorentino, Mennuni, Garofalo, Letari, Mandelli, Giordani, Lanza M , Caselli G

Published 18 April 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 111—125


Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Flora Ferrari1, Simonetta Fiorentino1, Laura Mennuni1, Paolo Garofalo1, Ornella Letari1, Stefano Mandelli2, Antonio Giordani3, Marco Lanza1, Gianfranco Caselli1
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry; 3R&D Chemistry Drug Development and OS, Rottapharm S.p.A., Monza (MB), Italy

Abstract: Two decades of investigations have failed to unequivocally clarify the functions and the molecular nature of imidazoline-2 receptors (I2R). However, there is robust pharmacological evidence for the functional modulation of monoamino oxidase (MAO) and other important enzyme activities by I2 site ligands. Some compounds of this class proved to be active experimental tools in preventing both experimental pain and opioid tolerance and dependence. Unfortunately, even though these compounds bind with high potency to central I2 sites, they fail to represent a valid clinical opportunity due to their pharmacokinetic, selectivity or side-effects profile. This paper presents the preclinical profile of a novel I2 ligand (2-phenyl-6-(1H-imidazol-1yl)quinazoline; [CR4056]) that selectively inhibits the activity of human recombinant MAO-A in a concentration-dependent manner. A sub-chronic four day oral treatment of CR4056 increased norepinephrine (NE) tissue levels both in the rat cerebral cortex (63.1% ± 4.2%; P<0.05) and lumbar spinal cord (51.3% ± 6.7%; P < 0.05). In the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) rat model of inflammatory pain, CR4056 was found to be orally active (ED50 = 5.8 mg/kg, by mouth [p.o.]). In the acute capsaicin model, CR4056 completely blocked mechanical hyperalgesia in the injured hind paw (ED50 = 4.1 mg/kg, p.o.; ED100 = 17.9 mg/kg, p.o.). This effect was dose-dependently antagonized by the non-selective imidazoline I2/α2 antagonist idazoxan. In rat models of neuropathic pain, oral administration of CR4056 significantly attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. In summary, the present study suggests a novel pharmacological opportunity for inflammatory and/or neuropathic pain treatment based on selective interaction with central imidazoline-2 receptors.

Keywords: imidazoline-2 receptors, hyperalgesia, allodynia, inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, CR4056

Creative Commons License © 2011 The Author(s). This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.