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An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

Authors Binjawadagi B, Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Ouyang K, Torrelles JB, Renukaradhya GJ

Received 31 December 2013

Accepted for publication 23 January 2014

Published 24 March 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 1519—1535

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S59924

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Basavaraj Binjawadagi,1,2 Varun Dwivedi,1 Cordelia Manickam,1,2 Kang Ouyang,1 Jordi B Torrelles,3 Gourapura J Renukaradhya1,2

1Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines) in the lungs were observed. In conclusion, combination of NP-KAg and soluble M. tb WCL elicits broadly cross-protective anti-PRRSV immunity in the pig respiratory system.

Keywords: PRRSV, mucosal vaccine, PLGA nanoparticles, cross-protection, M. tb WCL

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