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Alterations in oral microbial flora induced by waterpipe tobacco smoking

Authors Shakhatreh MAK, Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH, Masadeh MM, Hussein EI, Bshara GN

Received 1 September 2017

Accepted for publication 7 December 2017

Published 2 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 47—54

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S150553

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Muhamad Ali K Shakhatreh,1 Omar F Khabour,1 Karem H Alzoubi,2 Majed M Masadeh,3 Emad I Hussein,4 George N Bshara1

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Irbid, Jordan; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 4Department of Biological Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Background:
Waterpipe smoking is a global health problem and a serious public concern. Little is known about the effects of waterpipe smoking on oral health. In the current study, we examined the alterations of oral microbial flora by waterpipe smoking.
Methods: One hundred adult healthy subjects (59 waterpipe smokers and 41 non-smokers) were recruited into the study. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity and subgingival regions. Standard culturing techniques were used to identify types, frequency, and mean number of microorganisms in cultures obtained from the subjects.
Results: It was notable that waterpipe smokers were significantly associated with a history of oral infections. In subgingiva, Acinetobacter and Moraxella species were present only in waterpipe smokers. In addition, the frequency of Candida albicans was higher in the subgingiva of waterpipe smokers (p = 0.023) while the frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly lower in the subgingiva of waterpipe smokers (p = 0.036). However, no change was observed in other tested bacteria, such as Campylobacter species; Viridans group streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus aureus. In oral cavity and when colony-forming units were considered, the only bacterial species that showed significant difference were the black-pigmented bacteria (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: This study provides evidence indicating that some of the oral microflora is significantly altered by waterpipe smoking.

Keywords: waterpipe, smoking, oral microflora, hookah, tobacco

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