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Alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in deficient individuals enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank

Authors Adriano R Tonelli, Farshid Rouhani, Ning Li, et al

Published 8 December 2009 Volume 2009:4 Pages 443—452

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S8577

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Adriano R Tonelli1, Farshid Rouhani1, Ning Li2, Pam Schreck1, Mark L Brantly1

1Alpha-1 Research Program, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Introduction: Intravenous augmentation therapy with purified intravenous alpha-1 antitrypsin replaces the deficient protein and is the only currently approved treatment for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) related lung disease. While augmentation therapy has been available for more than 20 years, there are a limited number of studies evaluating the effect of augmentation on lung function.

Material and methods: We examined the decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in patients enrolled in the Alpha-1 Foundation DNA and Tissue Bank in relation to the use or not of alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy. For the purpose of our analysis we included 164 patients with AATD and PI ZZ genotype.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 60 years, 52% were females, 94% were white and 78% ex-smokers. The mean FEV1 at baseline was 1.7 L and the mean FEV1 % of predicted was 51.3%. The mean follow-up time was 41.7 months. A total of 124 (76%) patients received augmentation therapy (augmented group) while 40 patients (24%) did not received it (non-augmented group). When adjusted by age at baseline, sex, smoking status, baseline FEV1 % of predicted, the mean overall change in FEV1 was 47.6 mL/year, favoring the augmented group (∆FEV1 10.6 ± 21.4 mL/year) in comparison with the non-augmented group (∆FEV1 −36.96 ± 12.1 mL/year) (P = 0.05). Beneficial ∆FEV1 were observed in ex-smokers and the group with initial FEV1 % of predicted of <50%. No differences were observed in mortality.

Conclusions: In conclusion, augmentation therapy improves lung function in subjects with AATD when adjusted by age, gender, smoking status and baseline FEV1 % of predicted. The beneficial effects were noted in ex-smoker subjects with FEV1 below 50% of predicted.

Keywords: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, augmentation therapy, forced expiratory volume in one second

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