Aliskiren suppresses the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and reduces blood pressure and albuminuria in elderly chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension
Yoshiyuki Morishita,1 Toshihiro Yasui,2 Akihiko Numata,1 Akira Onishi,1 Kenichi Ishibashi,3 Eiji Kusano1
1Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Japan; 2National Health Insurance Yukawa Clinic, Niimi, Japan; 3Department of Medical Physiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan
Background: We investigated the effects of aliskiren in terms of its inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) as well as that on blood pressure (BP), and renal and cardiac protection in elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension.
Methods: Nineteen elderly CKD patients (nine males, ten females, aged 74.6 ± 5.8 years) were assigned to receive 150 mg/day of aliskiren added to existing antihypertensives for 6 months. Changes in plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (Ald), BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), interventricular septum thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were evaluated.
Results: Aliskiren suppressed the RAAS as follows: PRA 1.3 ± 1.0 to 0.3 ± 0.3 ng/mL/hour, P < 0.05; Ang I 59.5 ± 32.1 to 26.0 ± 17.3 pg/mL, P < 0.05; Ang II 58.4 ± 62.1 to 14.3 ± 9.0 pg/mL, P < 0.05; and Ald 86.1 ± 38.3 to 80.1 ± 52.6 pg/mL, not significant (NS). Aliskiren reduced BP (153.6/77.2 ± 14.9/10.4 to 130.9/72.2 ± 15.6/9.9 mmHg, P < 0.05). It also reduced UACR (747.1 ± 1121.4 to 409.6 ± 636.8 mg/g, P < 0.05), whereas it did not change eGFR (52.1 ± 29.2 to 51.2 ± 29.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, NS), LVEF (66.8 ± 7.9 to 66.5% ± 6.8%, NS), IVST (10.1 ± 1.8 to 9.9 ± 1.8 mm, NS), LVPWT (10.0 ± 1.6 mm to 10.0 ± 1.4 mm, NS), or BNP (48.2 ± 46.0 to 54.9 ± 41.1 pg/mL, NS).
Conclusion: Aliskiren was effective for BP control and reduced UACR while maintaining eGFR and heart function in elderly CKD patients with hypertension.
Keywords: aliskiren, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, blood pressure, albuminuria, elderly chronic kidney disease
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