Alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and oral health associations with hypopharyngeal cancer among men in Central South China: a case–control study
Authors Zeng J, Tang Y, Wu P, Fang X, Wang W, Fan Y, Li X, Zhao S
Received 30 January 2019
Accepted for publication 14 May 2019
Published 10 July 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 6353—6364
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Teng
Junfeng Zeng, Yaoyun Tang, Ping Wu, Xing Fang, Wei Wang, Yuhua Fan, Xin Li, Suping Zhao
Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Province Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Critical Diseases, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China
Background: Hypopharyngeal cancer has relatively high incidence rates in China, especially in high-risk areas. However, data on the role of major risk factors in these areas of China are still limited.
Methods: We have evaluated the roles of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid consumption, and oral health, based on 278 hypopharyngeal cancer cases and 693 controls from two centers in Central South China. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) values were estimated using logistic regression.
Results: We found that alcohol drinkers had a risk of hypopharyngeal cancer that was up to seven times higher than that for those who had never drunk. A very strong effect of traditional liquor as compared to other alcohol types was observed, with the OR reaching 11.26 (CI 6.53–19.41) for this cancer. Tobacco smokers were up to four times more likely to develop hypopharyngeal cancer than never smokers. The OR for betel quid chewing was 1.86 (CI 1.26–2.75) as compared to never users. Poor oral hygiene had a risk of hypopharyngeal cancer that was two times higher than that for normal oral hygiene.
Conclusion: In this study, we have shown for what is believed to be the ﬁrst time the association of increased hypopharyngeal cancer incidence with alcohol, tobacco, betel quid and oral hygiene in China. Alcohol may play a larger role for hypopharyngeal cancer in this population than in populations in other areas.
Keywords: alcohol, tobacco, betel quid, oral hygiene, hypopharyngeal cancer
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