Airway reactivity to mannitol is similarly increased in chronic cigarette and water pipe smokers
Authors Scherr A, Schmidlin J, Albisser S, Tamm M, Stolz D
Received 19 September 2017
Accepted for publication 17 November 2017
Published 3 January 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 157—163
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Andreas Scherr, Jerome Schmidlin, Silvio Albisser, Michael Tamm, Daiana Stolz
Clinic for Pneumology and Respiratory Cell Research, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Background: In contrast to cigarette smoking, the association between water pipe smoking and airway hyperresponsiveness remains widely unexplored.
Methods: A bronchoprovocation challenge with mannitol was performed in young adults recruited at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Subjects were categorized as acute water pipe smokers (single episode of water pipe smoking, no or <0.5 pack-years cigarette smoking); chronic water pipe smokers (weekly for ≥4 weeks, no or <0.5 pack-years cigarette smoking); cigarette smokers (no water pipe smokers); and never-smokers (no cigarette or water pipe smokers). Primary outcomes were airway reactivity as measured by the response-to-dose ratio (RDR) and airway responsiveness measured by the provocation dose to cause a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1; PD15).
Results: Seventy-four subjects with a mean age of 22.5±2.5 years and FEV1 % predicted 90.1%±8.6% were included. Subgroups were matched in terms of age, gender, and spirometry results. RDR in chronic water pipe smokers and cigarette smokers was similar (0.013%/mg [0.010–0.015] vs 0.023%/mg [0.011–0.051], respectively; p=0.12) but significantly higher than in never-smokers (0.007%/mg [0.005–0.010], p<0.01). Neither a history of asthma (p=0.88) nor a positive skin prick test (p=0.69) was associated with increased airway reactivity to the mannitol challenge test. PD15 differed significantly between cigarette smokers and never-smokers (155 mg [115–395] vs 315 mg [155–475], respectively; p=0.04).
Conclusion: Weekly water pipe smoking may increase airway reactivity to a similar extent as cigarette smoking.
Keywords: mannitol challenge, airway reactivity, water pipe smoking
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