Advantages of the Combination of Conscious Sedation Epidural Anesthesia Under Fluoroscopy Guidance in Lumbar Spine Surgery
Received 14 August 2019
Accepted for publication 24 December 2019
Published 21 January 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 211—219
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael A Überall
Seung Youn Kang, 1 Osama Nezar Kashlan, 2 Ravindra Singh, 2 Rahul Rane, 2 Nitin Maruti Adsul, 3 Sung Chan Jung, 1 Jihwan Yi, 1 Hae Sun Cho, 1 Hyeun Sung Kim, 2 Il-Tae Jang, 2 Seong-Hoon Oh 4
1Department of Anesthesiology, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Orthopedics, Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi, India; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Bupyeong, Incheon, Republic of Korea
Correspondence: Hyeun Sung Kim
Department of Neurosurgery, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam, #06048 731 Eonju Street, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Tel +82 2 6003 9767
Fax +82 2 3445 9755
Background: With the increase in life expectancy seen throughout the world, the prevalence of degenerative spinal pathology and surgery to treat it has increased. Spinal surgery under general anesthesia leads to various problems and complications, especially in patients with numerous medical comorbidities or elderly patients. For this reason, there is a need for safer anesthetic methods applicable to unhealthy, elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery.
Purpose: To report our experience with utilizing fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia in conjunction with conscious sedation in spinal surgery.
Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 111 patients at our institution that received fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia for lumbar surgery from February to September 2018. Patients’ records were evaluated to evaluate patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiology Physical Classification System (ASA) class, and pain numerical rating scores (NRS) preoperatively and throughout their recovery postoperatively. Intraoperative data including volume of epidural anesthetic used, extent of epidural spread, and inadvertent subdural injection was collected. Postoperative recovery time was also collected.
Results: The mean age of our patients was 60 years old with a range between 31 and 83 years old. All patients experienced decreases in postoperative pain with no significant differences based on age or ASA class. There was no association between ASA class and time to recovery postoperatively. Older patients (age 70 years or greater) had a significantly longer recovery time when compared to younger patients. Recovery also was longer for patients who received higher volumes of epidural anesthesia. For every 1 mL increase of epidural anesthetic given, there was an increase in the extent of spread of 1.8 spinal levels.
Conclusion: We demonstrate the safety and feasibility of utilizing conscious sedation in conjunction with fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia in the lumbar spinal surgery.
Keywords: fluoroscopy-guided epidural anesthesia, conscious sedation, endoscopic decompressive lumbar spine surgery, capnogram monitoring
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