Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study
Authors Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Abedi L, Mahini M, Amiri S, Khorasani-Zavareh D
Received 29 April 2015
Accepted for publication 20 May 2015
Published 7 August 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 2049—2054
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6
1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.
Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version) were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention), subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity), subscale C (A + C), and subscale D (ADHD index). The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.
Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not have a motorcycle riding license. Variables found to be significantly associated with motorcycle injuries in bivariate analysis included age, marital status, educational level, having a motorcycle riding license, using a helmet while riding, daily amount of riding, riding just for fun, riding behavior score, and ADHD scale scores. It was found in multivariate analysis that if the ADHD index (subscale D) score was used to assess the association of ADHD with motorcycle injuries, a protective role for ADHD was observed. However, the two other subscales showed a different predictive pattern for subscale A versus subscale B, with only subscale B increasing the likelihood of motorcycle traffic injuries. The score based on motorcycle rider behavior was found to be associated with motorcycle injuries. Other variables that were significant in multivariate models were the purpose of riding, educational level, economic status, and marital status.
Conclusion: ADHD and riding behavior scores affect the likelihood of motorcycle traffic injuries among motorcycle riders independent of other injury indicators, and include education, purpose of riding, and economic status.
Keywords: riding for fun, helmet, motorcycle traffic accidents, motorized two-wheelers, epidemiology, Iran
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