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Adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes among people with diabetes: a systematic review and reflections

Authors Jarl G, Lundqvist L

Received 7 May 2016

Accepted for publication 14 June 2016

Published 8 August 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 1521—1528

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S112275

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen

Gustav Jarl,1,2 Lars-Olov Lundqvist2

1Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, 2University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Introduction: Therapeutic shoes are prescribed to prevent diabetic foot ulcers, but adherence to wearing the shoes is often poor. 
Aim: The aim of this study was to review the literature on factors that are associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes and construct a model of adherence to aid future research and development in the field.
Methods: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for quantitative studies on factors associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes among people with diabetes.
Results: Six studies were included in the review. The studies focused mainly on patient-, therapy-, and condition-related adherence factors. There is some evidence (three to five studies) that sex, diabetes duration, and ulcer history are not associated with adherence. The evidence for or against the other factors was weak (only one or two studies) or conflicting.
Conclusion: There is no conclusive evidence for using any factor to predict adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes, but there is some evidence against using certain factors for predicting adherence. Future studies should include a broader range of factors, including health system and social/economic factors, and they should investigate perceived costs and benefits of wearing therapeutic shoes in comparison with other shoes or no shoes. A seesaw model is presented illustrating the complex phenomenon of adherence. Further research is needed to identify factors associated with adherence to wearing therapeutic shoes, to enable the development of interventions to improve adherence and thereby reduce ulceration rates among people with diabetic foot complications.

Keywords: Patient compliance, shoes, foot ulcer, diabetic foot, diabetes complications, diabetic neuropathies

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