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Adherence to Self-Care Practices and Associated Factors Among Outpatient Adult Heart Failure Patients Attending a Cardiac Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2020

Authors Tegegn BW, Hussien WY, Abebe AE, Gebre MW

Received 2 December 2020

Accepted for publication 30 January 2021

Published 15 February 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 317—327

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S293121

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen


Bethlehem Wube Tegegn,1 Wondwossen Yimam Hussien,2 Afework Edmealem Abebe,2 Mulugeta W/Selassie Gebre3

1Department of Adult Health Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia; 2Department of Comprehensive Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia; 3Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, Wollo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dessie, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Mulugeta W/Selassie Gebre
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, Wollo University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 1145, Dessie, Ethiopia
Tel +251 911954032
Fax +251 333115277
Email alzunfa@yahoo.com

Introduction: Proper self-care in patients with chronic illnesses, such as heart failure is allied with the prevention or early detection of health problems and improved clinical outcomes. Even though self-care among patients with heart failure is commonly poor, a low-sodium diet, regular exercise, and weight monitoring are essential to control heart failure symptoms and exacerbation. Poor adherence to these self-care practices contributes to an increase in hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality.
Objective: To assess adherence to self-care practices and associated factors among outpatient adult heart failure patients attending cardiac center in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, 2020.
Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was used to incorporate 396 heart failure patients who attended the cardiac center in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. Study participants were selected by using a systematic sampling technique. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and from the patients’ medical records. Epi-data version 3.1 and SPSS version 26 were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of self-care practice. Those variables with p-value < 0.25 in the bivariable regression analysis were entered into the multivariable regression analysis and the result were presented using tables, chart, and mean.
Results: Of 396 respondents, 111 (28%) of patients with heart failure had overall good self-care adherence. Comorbidity (AOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.07– 2.624), level of knowledge (AOR: 3.58; 95% CI: 2.23– 5.79) and depression (AOR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.048– 5.726) were factors significantly associated with adherence to self-care practice.
Conclusion: Comorbidity, inadequate knowledge, and depression were predictors of self-care practice. As a result, nursing intervention programs regarding knowledge on heart failure are recommended for enhancing self-care practices. Self-care strategies shall target patients with depression and comorbidity.

Keywords: self-care, adherence, heart failure

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