Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults
Authors Avelino AP, Oliveira GMM, Ferreira CCD, Luiz RR, Rosa G
Received 8 October 2014
Accepted for publication 29 June 2015
Published 22 October 2015 Volume 2015:10 Pages 1679—1685
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4
1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA).
Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value) and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value).
Results: Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value) consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (P<0.050), suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of <7% SFA/day of the total energy value increased the effect of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat.
Keywords: linseed oil, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, older adults, atherosclerosis, saturated fatty acids, elderly
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