Addition Of Sauce Enhances Finger-Snack Intake Among Japanese Elderly People With Dementia
Received 2 August 2019
Accepted for publication 30 October 2019
Published 14 November 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 2031—2040
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Atsushi Kimura,1 Kohei Yamaguchi,2,3 Haruka Tohara,3 Yusuke Sato,4 Naoko Sawada,4 Yasuhide Nakagawa,4 Yukako Matsuda,2,5 Motoharu Inoue,2,5 Kazuhiro Tamaki2,4
1College of Risk Management, Nihon University, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Dentistry Nanohana Clinic, Medical Corporation Kanjinkai, Nishitama-gun, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 4Geriatric Health Services Facility Nanohana, Medical Corporation Kanjinkai, Nishitama-gun, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Dysphasia Rehabilitation, Nihon University of Dentistry, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo, Japan
Correspondence: Atsushi Kimura
College of Risk Management, Nihon University, 3-34-1 Shimouma, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8513, Japan
Tel +81 3 6453 1600
Fax +81 3 6453 1630
Geriatric Health Services Facility Nanohana, Medical Corporation Kanjinkai, 454 Tonogaya, Mizuho-machi, Nishitama-gun, Tokyo 190-1212, Japan
Tel +81 42 568 5111
Fax +81 42 568 5127
Purpose: The previous study demonstrated that the addition of a sauce is an effective means of influencing the consumption of finger foods among French elderly people with dementia. However, it is unclear the relative importance of low-level sensory factors such as flavor and a semi-solid nature and high-level cognitive factors such as memory stimulation and familiarity to the effect of the addition of sauce on food intake. The present study investigated whether the addition of sauce affects finger-snack intake among Japanese elderly people with dementia who were not familiar with sauce dipping.
Patients And Methods: A total of 21 patients with dementia who were recruited in a nursing home in Tokyo received a plate of cut baumkuchen (a very thinly layered German roll cake), which had pieces of baumkuchen both with and without sauce, at their afternoon snack time. The amount of food intake and the first choice between options were measured for each participant. We used chocolate (in Experiment 1, n = 21) and agave (Experiment 2, n =14) syrups as sauce samples.
Results: Results of both experiments demonstrate that snack consumption was greater for the with-sauce options than for the without-sauce options. A 90.5% of the participants in Experiment 1 and 64.3% of participants in Experiment 2 ate more snacks with sauce than without sauce.
Conclusion: These findings imply that low-level sensory factors such as flavor and a semi-solid nature contribute relatively more strongly to the enhancement of food consumption with the addition of sauce than do high-level cognitive factors such as memory stimulation and familiarity, because Japanese elderly people are not always familiar with the custom of wiping up the sauce with food.
Keywords: food consumption, dementia, under nutrition, food improvement, sauce
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