Acute-on-chronic liver failure: a review
Luis Eduardo Zamora Nava,1 Jonathan Aguirre Valadez,2 Norberto C Chávez-Tapia,3 Aldo Torre2
1Department of Endoscopy, 2Department of Gastroenterology, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán, 3Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit, Medica Sur Clinic and Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico
Abstract: There is no universally accepted definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure; however, it is recognized as an entity characterized by decompensation from an underlying chronic liver disease associated with organ failure that conveys high short-term mortality, with alcoholism and infection being the most frequent precipitating events. The pathophysiology involves inflammatory processes associated with a trigger factor in susceptible individuals (related to altered immunity in the cirrhotic population). This review addresses the different definitions developed by leading research groups, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects, and the latest treatments for this entity.
Keywords: acute-on-chronic liver failure, cirrhosis, organ failure, acute kidney injury, infection
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