Activation of polymeric nanoparticle intracellular targeting overcomes chemodrug resistance in human primary patient breast cancer cells
Received 1 August 2018
Accepted for publication 26 September 2018
Published 29 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 8153—8164
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster
Amoura M Abou-El-Naga,1 Ghada Mutawa,2 Ibrahim M El-Sherbiny,3 Shaker A Mousa4
1Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt; 2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Dentistry, Horus University in Egypt (HUE), New Damietta 34517, Egypt; 3Center for Materials Science, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Cairo 12588, Egypt; 4The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
Background: Successfully overcoming obstacles due to anticancer drugs’ toxicity and achieving effective treatment using unique nanotechnology is challenging. The complex nature of breast tumors is mainly due to chemoresistance. Successful docetaxel (DTX) delivery by nanoparticles (NPs) through inhibition of multidrug resistance (MDR) can be a bridge to enhance intracellular dose and achieve higher cytotoxicity for cancer cells.
Purpose: This study tested primary patient breast cancer cells in vitro with traditional free DTX in comparison with polymeric nanocarriers based on poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) NPs.
Materials and methods: Establishment of primary cell line from breast malignant tumor depends on enzymatic digestion. Designed DTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared with a solvent evaporation method; one design was supported by the use of folic acid (FA) conjugated to PLGA. The physical properties of NPs were characterized as size, charge potential, surface morphology, DTX loading, and encapsulation efficiency. In vitro cellular uptake of fluorescent NPs was examined visually with confocal fluorescence microscopy and quantitatively with flow cytometry. In vitro cytotoxicity of all DTX designed NPs against cancer cells was investigated with MTT assay. RT-PCR measurements were done to examine the expression of chemoresistant and apoptotic genes of the tested DTX NPs.
Results: Cellular uptake of DTX was time dependent and reached the maximum after loading on PLGA NPs and with FA incorporation, which activated the endocytosis mechanism. MTT assay revealed significant higher cytotoxicity of DTX-loaded FA/PLGA NPs with higher reduction of IC50 (8.29 nM). In addition, PLGA NPs, especially FA incorporated, limited DTX efflux by reducing expression of ABCG2 (3.2-fold) and MDR1 (2.86-fold), which were highly activated by free DTX. DTX-loaded FA/PLGA NPs showed the highest apoptotic effect through the activation of Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and TP53 genes by 2.8-, 1.6-, and 1.86-fold, respectively.
Conclusion: FA/PLGA NPs could be a hopeful drug delivery system for DTX in breast cancer treatment.
Keywords: PLGA NPs, chemoresistance, endocytosis, drug delivery system, active targeting, human breast cancer, DTX loaded PLGA NPs
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