Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 7

Acoustic cardiac signals analysis: a Kalman filter–based approach

Authors Salleh SH, Hussain HS, Swee TT, Ting CM, Noor AM, Pipatsart S, Ali J, Yupapin PP

Received 27 March 2012

Accepted for publication 25 April 2012

Published 11 June 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 2873—2881

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S32315

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Sheik Hussain Salleh,1 Hadrina Sheik Hussain,2 Tan Tian Swee,2 Chee-Ming Ting,2 Alias Mohd Noor,2 Surasak Pipatsart,3 Jalil Ali,4 Preecha P Yupapin3

1Department of Biomedical Instrumentation and Signal Processing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia; 2Centre for Biomedical Engineering Transportation Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Abstract: Auscultation of the heart is accompanied by both electrical activity and sound. Heart auscultation provides clues to diagnose many cardiac abnormalities. Unfortunately, detection of relevant symptoms and diagnosis based on heart sound through a stethoscope is difficult. The reason GPs find this difficult is that the heart sounds are of short duration and separated from one another by less than 30 ms. In addition, the cost of false positives constitutes wasted time and emotional anxiety for both patient and GP. Many heart diseases cause changes in heart sound, waveform, and additional murmurs before other signs and symptoms appear. Heart-sound auscultation is the primary test conducted by GPs. These sounds are generated primarily by turbulent flow of blood in the heart. Analysis of heart sounds requires a quiet environment with minimum ambient noise. In order to address such issues, the technique of denoising and estimating the biomedical heart signal is proposed in this investigation. Normally, the performance of the filter naturally depends on prior information related to the statistical properties of the signal and the background noise. This paper proposes Kalman filtering for denoising statistical heart sound. The cycles of heart sounds are certain to follow first-order Gauss–Markov process. These cycles are observed with additional noise for the given measurement. The model is formulated into state-space form to enable use of a Kalman filter to estimate the clean cycles of heart sounds. The estimates obtained by Kalman filtering are optimal in mean squared sense.

Keywords: heart sound, murmurs, ECG, Kalman filters, acoustic cardiac signals

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Corrigendum

Jalil MA, Moongfangklang M, Innate K, Mitatha S, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:3279-3280

Published Date: 29 June 2012

Generation of THz frequency using PANDA ring resonator for THz imaging

Jalil MA, Abdolkarim A, Saktioto T, Ong CT, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:773-779

Published Date: 15 February 2012

Gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapeutic applications

Aziz MS, Suwanpayak N, Jalil MA, Jomtarak R, Saktioto T, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:11-17

Published Date: 29 December 2011

Human facial neural activities and gesture recognition for machine-interfacing applications

Hamedi M, Salleh SH, Tan TS, Ismail K, Ali J, Dee-Uam C, Pavaganun C, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:3461-3472

Published Date: 16 December 2011

Embedded nanomicro syringe on chip for molecular therapy

Jalil MA, Suwanpayak N, Kulsirirat K, Suttirak S, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:2925-2932

Published Date: 18 November 2011

Molecular network topology and reliability for multipurpose diagnosis

Jalil MA, Moongfangklang N, Innate K, Mitatha S, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:2385-2392

Published Date: 19 October 2011

Heart detection and diagnosis based on ECG and EPCG relationships

Phanphaisarn W, Roeksabutr A, Wardkein P, Koseeyaporn J, Yupapin PP

Medical Devices: Evidence and Research 2011, 4:133-144

Published Date: 26 August 2011

Multi-access drug delivery network and stability

Mitatha S, Moongfangklang N, Jalil MA, Suwanpayak N, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1757-1764

Published Date: 23 August 2011

Proposal for Alzheimer’s diagnosis using molecular buffer and bus network

Mitatha S, Moongfangklang N, Jalil MA, Suwanpayak N, Saktioto T, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1209-1216

Published Date: 14 June 2011

Blood cleaner on-chip design for artificial human kidney manipulation

Suwanpayak N, Jalil MA, Aziz MS, Ismail FD, Ali J, Yupapin PP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:957-964

Published Date: 2 May 2011

Molecular buffer using a PANDA ring resonator for drug delivery use

N Suwanpayak, MA Jalil, MS Aziz, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:575-580

Published Date: 22 March 2011

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

Sacco G, Turpin JM, Marteu A, Sakarovitch C, Teboul B, Boscher L, Brocker P, Robert P, Guerin O

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2015, 10:491-497

Published Date: 23 February 2015

A new recombinant factor VIII: from genetics to clinical use

Santagostino E

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8:2507-2515

Published Date: 12 December 2014

Caval filters in intensive care: a retrospective study

Ferraro F, Di Gennaro TL, Torino A, Petruzzi J, d'Elia A, Fusco P, Marfella R, Lettieri B

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8:2213-2219

Published Date: 6 November 2014

Sensory disturbances, inhibitory deficits, and the P50 wave in schizophrenia

Vlcek P, Bob P, Raboch J

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2014, 10:1309-1315

Published Date: 14 July 2014

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method without DNA extraction for the genotyping of F5, F2, F12, MTHFR, and HFE

Martinez-Serra J, Robles J, Nicolàs A, Gutierrez A, Ros T, Amat JC, Alemany R, Vögler O, Abelló A, Noguera A, Besalduch J

Journal of Blood Medicine 2014, 5:99-106

Published Date: 25 June 2014

Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

Wang SQ, Sarenac D, Chen MH, Huang SH, Giguel FF, Kuritzkes DR, Demirci U

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5019-5028

Published Date: 17 September 2012