Back to Journals » Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management » Volume 4 » Issue 3

AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

Authors Michael R Graham, Peter Evans, Bruce Davies, Julien S Baker

Published 6 June 2008 Volume 2008:4(3) Pages 587—597

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S2495

Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker1

1Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United Kingdom

Abstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.

Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF] 

 

Other article by this author:

Arterial pulse wave velocity, inflammatory markers, pathological GH and IGF states, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

Michael R Graham, Peter Evans, Bruce Davies, Julien S Baker

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008, 4:1361-1371

Published Date: 5 December 2008

Readers of this article also read:

Back to the future – feasibility of recruitment and retention to patient education and telephone follow-up after hip fracture: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Langford DP, Fleig L, Brown KC, Cho NJ, Frost M, Ledoyen M, Lehn J, Panagiotopoulos K, Sharpe N, Ashe MC

Patient Preference and Adherence 2015, 9:1343-1351

Published Date: 22 September 2015

Behavioral activation for dementia caregivers: scheduling pleasant events and enhancing communications

Au A, Gallagher-Thompson D, Wong MK, Leung J, Chan WC, Chan CC, Lu HJ, Lai MK, Chan K

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2015, 10:611-619

Published Date: 26 March 2015

Enhanced photodynamic leishmanicidal activity of hydrophobic zinc phthalocyanine within archaeolipids containing liposomes

Perez AP, Casasco A, Schilrreff P, Defain Tesoriero MV, Duempelmann L, Altube MJ, Higa L, Morilla MJ, Petray P, Romero EL

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3335-3345

Published Date: 10 July 2014

A failure to confirm the effectiveness of a brief group psychoeducational program for mothers of children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders: a randomized controlled pilot trial

Suzuki M, Yamada A, Watanabe N, Akechi T, Katsuki F, Nishiyama T, Imaeda M, Miyachi T, Otaki K, Mitsuda Y, Ota A, Furukawa TA

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2014, 10:1141-1153

Published Date: 30 June 2014

Acceptance of an assistive robot in older adults: a mixed-method study of human–robot interaction over a 1-month period in the Living Lab setting

Wu YH, Wrobel J, Cornuet M, Kerhervé H, Damnée S, Rigaud AS

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2014, 9:801-811

Published Date: 8 May 2014

Safety and efficacy of nateglinide/metformin combination therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

Marc K Israel, Eva Istvan, Michelle A Baron

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008, 4:1167-1178

Published Date: 5 December 2008

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the early treatment of type 2 diabetes

Floris Alexander van de Laar

Vascular Health and Risk Management 2008, 4:1189-1195

Published Date: 5 December 2008

A review of the use of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% in the treatment of post-surgical inflammation following cataract and refractive surgery

Helga P Sandoval, Luis E Fernández de Castro, David T Vroman, Kerry D Solomon

Clinical Ophthalmology 2007, 1:367-371

Published Date: 15 February 2008