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A Review on the Mechanism Between Different Factors and the Occurrence of Autism and ADHD

Authors Xi T, Wu J

Received 4 February 2021

Accepted for publication 26 March 2021

Published 9 April 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 393—403

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S304450

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Igor Elman


Tingting Xi, Jinlin Wu

Medical Administration Department, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University/West China Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Jinlin Wu No. 20, Section 3, South Renmin Road, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, 610041, People’s Republic of China
Email [email protected]

Abstract: The incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders especially in children has been on the rise in recent decades, which is possibly caused by many different factors. In order to further explain this situation and arouse enough attention, this review will specifically elaborate genetic aspects and pathogenic hypothesis of these two kinds of neurodevelopmental diseases in children, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while analyzing the relationship between different environmental toxins and these two disorders. The effects of these pathogenic factors such as heavy metal lead, mercury, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their strong pathogenicity will be explained in detail through literature data retrieval and analysis. In addition, other neurotransmitter such as norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) signaling factors coming down to these two neurodevelopmental disorders and how their abnormal concentration present in the blood as well as the completely opposite results among experimental groups and control group will be elaborated. Furthermore, other high-risk and high-exposure factors may contribute to both diseases, such as alcohol and smoking abuse among parents, air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 in the environment will also be discussed in the review. Since these environmental toxins and other harmful substances discussed in the paper have been linked to an increasing number of children with autism and ADHD in recent decades, from the medical perspective, this review will put forward certain succinct points to the aspects of minimizing relevant exposure or risks in clinical and daily life, as well as feasible suggestions in public health area for children, parents and prospective parents, to curb the growth of these two diseases in part by raising awareness in the population and reducing unnecessary exposure.

Keywords: autism, ASD, ADHD, neurotoxins, exposure

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