A review of the use of somatostatin analogs in oncology
Ozge Keskin, Suayib Yalcin
Department of Medical Oncology, Hacettepe University Institute of Cancer, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract: Somatostatin is a neuropeptide produced by paracrine cells that are located throughout the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and pancreas, and is also found in various locations of the nervous system. It exerts neural control over many physiological functions including inhibition of gastrointestinal endocrine secretion through its receptors. Potent and biologically stable analogs of somatostatin have been developed. These somatostatin analogs show different efficacy on different receptors, and receptors are varyingly concentrated in specific tissues. Antitumor and antisecretory effects of somatostatin analogs in cancer have been shown in several in vivo and in vitro studies. However, these activities have not always yielded into clinically relevant patient outcome benefit. Somatostatin analogs are of clinical benefit in treating symptoms of ectopic hormone secretion (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone) in lung cancer, without inducing a significant tumor response. They have also been shown to induce a statistically significant decrease in bone pain and increase in Karnofsky performance status in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Somatostatin analogs alone or in combination with other agents have only limited antitumoral effect in breast cancer. In gastrointestinal cancers, studies have not shown an objective tumor response to somatostatin analogs except in endocrine tumors of the liver with symptomatic and biochemical improvement. In neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system and pancreas, very high symptomatic and biochemical response rates have been achieved with somatostatin analogs. Antiproliferative activity has been clearly shown in metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors.
Keywords: somatostatin analogs, oncology, radiolabeled, cancer
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