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A Review of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Myeloma and Lymphoma

Authors Atrash S, Moyo TK

Received 16 February 2021

Accepted for publication 12 March 2021

Published 26 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 2185—2201

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S242018

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Gaetano Romano


Shebli Atrash,1 Tamara K Moyo2

1Plasma Cell Disorders Division, Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA; 2Lymphoma Division, Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA

Correspondence: Shebli Atrash
Plasma Cell Disorders Division, Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, 1021 Morehead Medical Drive, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Collectively, hematological malignancies account for the fourth most common malignancy. Myeloma and lymphoma are the most common types of hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, the management of refractory myeloma and lymphoma remains challenging. The discovery of new immunological therapies, namely chimeric antigen receptors T cells (CAR-T), outlined unprecedented B cell malignancies results. In this context, the CAR-T-based approach has led to the proliferation of many clinical studies. In this review, we will deal with the CAR-T structure, and we will summarize the primary clinical studies assessing the risks and benefits of CAR-T cell therapy. We will also deal with the adverse events and management of cytokine release syndromes/immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). Subsequently, we will review potential future improvements to overcome refractoriness and improve expansion while decreasing CAR-T’s off-target effects. The advances in the CAR-T platform represent a step forward with promising unlimited future possibilities that made it a paradigm-shifting for the management of B cell malignancies.

Keywords: multiple myeloma, relapsed, refractory, treatment, chimeric antigen receptor, T cells, cytokine release syndrome, lymphoma, leukemia

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